AfyaFitness20 Disease_Condition Acute Kidney Failure

Acute Kidney Failure



Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood’s chemical makeup may get out of balance.

Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over a few hours or a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.

Acute kidney failure can be fatal and requires intensive treatment. However, acute kidney failure may be reversible. If you’re otherwise in good health, you may recover normal or nearly normal kidney function.

Symptoms of Acute kidney failure

Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure may include:

Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal

Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet

Drowsiness

Shortness of breath

Fatigue

Confusion

Nausea

Seizures or coma in severe cases

Chest pain or pressure

Sometimes acute kidney failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through lab tests done for another reason.

Causes of Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure can occur when:

You have a condition that slows blood flow to your kidneys

You experience direct damage to your kidneys

Your kidneys’ urine drainage tubes (ureters) become blocked and wastes can’t leave your body through your urine

Impaired blood flow to the kidneys

Diseases and conditions that may slow blood flow to the kidneys and lead to kidney failure include:

Blood or fluid loss

Blood pressure medications

Heart attack and  Heart disease

Infection

Liver failure

Use of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen (Aleve, others) or related drugs

Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)

Severe burns

Severe dehydration

Damage to the kidneys

These diseases, conditions and agents may damage the kidneys and lead to acute kidney failure:

Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys

Cholesterol deposits that block blood flow in the kidneys

Glomerulonephritis  inflammation of the tiny filters in the kidneys (glomeruli)

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that results from premature destruction of red blood cells

Infection

Lupus, an immune system disorder causing glomerulonephritis

Medications, such as certain chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, dyes used during imaging tests and zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa), used to treat osteoporosis and high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia)

Multiple myeloma, a cancer of the plasma cells

Scleroderma, a group of rare diseases affecting the skin and connective tissues

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a rare blood disorder

Toxins, such as alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine

Vasculitis, an inflammation of blood vessels

Urine blockage in the kidneys

Diseases and conditions that block the passage of urine out of the body (urinary obstructions) and can lead to acute kidney failure include:

Bladder cancer

Blood clots in the urinary tract

Cervical cancer

Colon cancer

Enlarged prostate

Kidney stones

Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder

Prostate cancer

Risk Factors of Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure almost always occurs in connection with another medical condition or event. Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include:

Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care

Advanced age

Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)

Diabetes

High blood pressure

Heart failure

Kidney diseases

Liver diseases

Tests and Diagnosis

If your signs and symptoms suggest that you have acute kidney failure, your doctor may recommend certain tests and procedures to verify your diagnosis. These may include:

Urine output measurements. The amount of urine you excrete in a day may help your doctor determine the cause of your kidney failure.

Urine tests. Analyzing a sample of your urine, a procedure called urinalysis, may reveal abnormalities that suggest kidney failure.

Blood tests. A sample of your blood may reveal rapidly rising levels of urea and creatinine — two substances used to measure kidney function.

Imaging tests. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and computerized tomography may be used to help your doctor see your kidneys.

Removing a sample of kidney tissue for testing. In some situations, your doctor may recommend a kidney biopsy to remove a small sample of kidney tissue for lab testing. Your doctor inserts a needle through your skin and into your kidney to remove the sample.

Treatment and Drugs

Treatment for acute kidney failure typically requires a hospital stay. Most people with acute kidney failure are already hospitalized. How long you’ll stay in the hospital depends on the reason for your acute kidney failure and how quickly your kidneys recover.

Your doctor will also work to prevent complications and allow your kidneys time to heal. Treatments that help prevent complications include:

Treatments to balance the amount of fluids in your blood. If your acute kidney failure is caused by a lack of fluids in your blood, your doctor may recommend intravenous (IV) fluids. In other cases, acute kidney failure may cause you to have too much fluid, leading to swelling in your arms and legs. In these cases, your doctor may recommend medications (diuretics) to cause your body to expel extra fluids.

Medications to control blood potassium. If your kidneys aren’t properly filtering potassium from your blood, your doctor may prescribe calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Kionex) to prevent the accumulation of high levels of potassium in your blood. Too much potassium in the blood can cause dangerous irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and muscle weakness.

Medications to restore blood calcium levels. If the levels of calcium in your blood drop too low, your doctor may recommend an infusion of calcium.

Dialysis to remove toxins from your blood. If toxins build up in your blood, you may need temporary hemodialysis — often referred to simply as dialysis — to help remove toxins and excess fluids from your body while your kidneys heal. Dialysis may also help remove excess potassium from your body. During dialysis, a machine pumps blood out of your body through an artificial kidney (dialyzer) that filters out waste. The blood is then returned to your body.

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